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Land Transformation Model
Stream Health Model
Spatially Explicit Nutrient Sources
L-THIA Model
Food Web Model

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Developed by Dr. David Hyndman (Michigan State University)


This model is intended to explicitly describe the nutrients applied to the landscape in the Great Lakes region at a HUC 12 spatial scale. The Spatially Explicit Nutrient Sources (SENS) model identifies six nutrient sources: atmospheric deposition, septic tanks, agricultural and non-agricultural chemical fertilizer, animal manure, and point sources. The model assumes that all nutrient sources have been accounted for. The current version does not estimate the load in the stream, but future iterations are expected include transport and fate processes to estimate load within the stream.


  • View percent contribution of nutrient sources to the landscape in your 12-digit watershed(s)
  • Save or print maps for planning and decision making

About the Model (5:46)

Additional Information


  1. Luscz, E. C., Kendall, A. D., & Hyndman, D. W. (2015). High resolution spatially explicit nutrient source models for the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 41(2), 618-629. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2015.02.004

Research Publications

“From Landscape Application to the River Mouth: A Fully Explicit Simulation of Nutrient Loads Across Lower Michigan, USA” – Dr. Anthony Kendall, Michigan State University 10/1/13 – Nutrients Webinar Series

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